The archaeologists: "Approximately two million litres of wine are produced here every year" * The huge 1,500-year-old industrial estate has been uncovered in archeological excavations conducted by the Israel Antiquities Authority as part of the development of the city of Yavne, at the initiative of the Israel Land Authority
Yavne was a world wine powerhouse about 1,500 years ago: a huge and well-designed industrial estate from the Byzantine period, with a very impressive wine production complex - the largest known in the world from this period, has been excavated in the city over the past two years. This huge excavation has been conducted by the Israel Antiquities Authority as part of the Israel Land Authority's initiative to expand the city. The plant includes five magnificent wine presses, warehouses for aging and marketing the wine, kilns for firing the clay amphorae in which the wine was stored, tens of thousands of fragments and intact earthen amphorae (jars), well planned access between the facilities, and more.
Drinking wine was very common in ancient times, for children and adults alike. Since the water was not always sterile and or even tasty, wine was also used as a kind of "concentrate" to improve the taste, or as a substitute for drinking water. Each of the exposed winepresses covered an area of about 225 square metres. Around the treading floor, where the grapes were crushed barefoot to extract the liquid, compartments were built for fermenting the wine, and next to them - two huge octagonal shaped vats for collecting the wine.
Dr. Elie Haddad, Liat Nadav-Ziv and Dr. Jon Seligman, the directors of the excavation on behalf of the Israel Antiquities Authority noted, "we were surprised to discover a sophisticated factory here, which was used to produce wine in commercial quantities. Furthermore, decorative niches in the shape of a conch, which adorned the winepresses, indicate the great wealth of the factory owners. A calculation of the production capacity of these winepresses shows that approximately two million litres of wine were marketed every year, while we should remember that the whole process was conducted manually."
Between the winepresses, four large warehouses were discovered, which formed the winery of the factory. The wine is aged in elongated amphorae, known as 'Gaza jars'. The jars themselves, some of which were discovered complete, together with hundreds of thousands of their fragments, were made at the site in large kilns.
"Gaza and Ashkelon Wine" was considered a quality wine brand of the ancient world, whose reputation has spread far and wide, a bit like Jaffa oranges denote their origin and quality today from Israel", the archaeologists explained. Everyone knew that this was a product from the Holy Land product, and everyone wanted more and more of this wine. The wine received its name as it was marketed through the ports of Gaza and Ashkelon. So far, other sites where wine was produced are known from the southern coastal plain, but now, we seem to have found the main production center of this prestigious wine. From here, commercial quantities were transported to the ports, and then throughout the Mediterranean basin”.
It is interesting to know that the excavation in Yavne revealed rare and even older winepresses from the Persian period, about 2300 years ago. “In the Mishna it is said that after the destruction of Jerusalem, the Jewish leadership migrated to Yavne, and that the sages of Yavne lived in a vineyard and studied Torah. The excavation shows a continuum of existence of the wine industry at the site over many centuries of years”, say the archaeologists.
According to Eli Eskozido, Director of the Israel Antiquities Authority, “The Yavne excavation is a mega-excavation of the Israel Antiquities Authority covering XX hectares, with the participation of hundreds of workers, dozens of permanent staff and experts. As an organization that wants to connect the public to its heritage, the IAA has involved youth and residents of Yavne in the excavation. Our archaeologists are doing sacred work by exposing unknown chapters of the history of the country, while working hard in the heat and cold. I welcome the cooperation with the Israel
Land Authority and the Yavne Municipality.
According to the director of the Israel Land Authority, Yaakov Quint, "the treasures that are part of the land have been exposed thanks to the Israel Lands Authority's extensive investment in financing the Yavne archeological excavations." 1049). The Israel Lands Authority’s plan, together with the Municipality of Yavne, includes 12,500 housing units and 450,000 square meters of commercial and employment space. The plan includes doubling-up the railway track and new construction over the train station. As part of the preliminary works for the development of the plan, the Israel Land Authority is investing approximately NIS 200 million in the works of the Israel Antiquities Authority, which will enable the archaeological finds to be exposed, investigated and preserved for future generations”.
Mayor of Yavne, Zvi Gov-Ari: "The impressive findings strengthen the recognition of the importance of the city of Yavne and its glorious past throughout history”. We have decided that Tel Yavne will be preserved and will be upgraded to become a focal point for tourism and education in the future. The development plan includes a bridge over the site that will allow the finds to continue to exist. This type of activity, in cooperation with the Israel Antiquities Authority, has not been done in other projects in the country, and this is an opportunity to thank all parties for their cooperation”.
1-2. Excavation by the Israel Antiquities Authority at Yavne - Aerial view. Photo: Assaf Peretz, Israel Antiquities Authority
3. The largest known wine industry area in the world dated to the Byzantine period. Photo: Assaf Peretz, Israel Antiquities Authority - No photo
4. A pair of wineries for producing wine from the Byzantine period. Photo: Yaniv Berman, Israel Antiquities Authority
5. From right to left: Dr. Elie Hadad, Liat Nadav-Ziv – Yavne Excavation Directors; Eli Escozido – Director of the Israel Antiquities Authority; Diego Barkan – Tel Aviv District Archaeologist, and Dr. Jon Seligman – Yavne Excavation Director. Photo: Yaniv Berman the Israel Antiquities Authority
6-8. Five huge winepresses of the Byzantine period were exposed in the excavation, producing an approximate total of two million litres of wine at Yavne every year. Photo: Yaniv Berman the Israel Antiquities Authority
9. In the center of the picture - column bases that supported the huge wine warehouse. Photo by Yaniv Berman, Israel Antiquities Authority
10. Compartment niches of the winepress decorated with a conch decoration testify to the great wealth of the owners of the estate. Photo: Yaniv Berman IAA
11. The Director of the excavation, Liat Nadav-Ziv, beside the conch niche that adorns the winepress. Photo: Yaniv Berman, Israel Antiquities Authority
12. Excavation directors, from right to left: Dr. Jon Seligman, Liat Nadav-Ziv and Dr. Elie Hadad. Photo: Yaniv Berman, Israel Antiquities Authority
13. Excavation director, Dr. Elie Hadad with a jar exposed in an excavation. Photo: Yaniv Berman, Israel Antiquities Authority
14. Excavation director, Dr. Jon Seligman with jars exposed in the excavation. Photo: Yaniv Berman, Israel Antiquities Authority
15. Thousands of ancient finds have been uncovered in the huge excavation of the Yavneh Antiquities Authority. Photo: Yaniv Berman Israel Antiquities Authority
17-16. Gaza wine was a world brand in the Byzantine period. Photo: Yaniv Berman IAA
18. An ancient cesspit. Photo by Yaniv Berman, Israel Antiquities Authority
19. Dolls made of bone from the Abbasid period. Photo by Yaniv Berman, Israel Antiquities Authority
20. Eli Eskozido, Director of the Israel Antiquities Authority, in the Yavneh excavation. Photo: Yaniv Berman, Israel Antiquities Authority
21. Hundreds of thousands of finds have been uncovered in the huge excavation in Yavne. Photo: Yaniv Berman, Israel Antiquities Authority