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During the Second Temple, the Greek empire reigned (over Israel),1 and they (the Greeks) passed decrees against the Jews and (tried) to erase their religion, and did not allow them to carry out Torah (study) or the commandments. They put their hands on their property and their daughters. They entered the Temple, destroyed and made the pure unclean. The Jews were in great distress because of them and were much oppressed, until the G-d of their fathers had mercy on them, delivering them from their hands and saving them. Then overcame, the sons of the Hasmonean High Priest, (the Greeks) and killed them and saved the Jews from their hands. They appointed a king from the Priests, and the kingdom of Israel was restored for more than 200 years until the destruction of (the) second (Temple). When the Jews overcame their enemies and destroyed them, it was the 25th of Kislev2 when they entered the Sanctuary (inner room) and did not find pure (olive) oil in the Temple, except one jar sealed with seal of the High Priest, and it did not contain enough to light except for one day only. But they lit from it the lamps of the Menorah3 for eight days, until they could crush olives and produce a (new quantity) of pure oil. For these reasons, decreed the Sages of that generation that these eight days that begin on the 25th Kislev, will be days of joy and praise. One lights on them lamps at evening at the entrance to the houses, every evening of the eight nights to show off and demonstrate the miracle. These days are called ''Hanukah'' that is to say ''they rested'' (chanu) on the ''25'' ('th of the month) because on the 25th they rested from their enemies. and also because of those days they (re)-dedicated the house (Temple) which their foes had defiled. Also some say that it is a commandment to increase slightly the festive meals on Hanukah. Another reason is because the work of (building) the Sanctuary (in the desert) was completed in these days. One should tell one's children the story of the miracles that were done for our fore-fathers in those days, (see Josephus) However, these meals are not considered as part of the commandment unless one says at the meal songs of praise. One should increase charity in these Hanukah days, for this can help mend any defects in our souls. This charity, should be given particularly to poor Torah scholars. (KSA 139:1)
1) 352 BCE until 70 CE
2) 139 BCE
3) The Menorah was made of gold and had seven branches.
In Shemos, Perek Lamed Alef, posuk tes zayin, the Torah tells us that we should keep the Shabbos. There is a posuk in Yeshaya that discusses that one needs to have onegShabbos. The Yerushalmi on that posuk brings down an argument concerning how a person should carry out the oneg of Shabbos. One opinion is that a person has oneg by sleeping on Shabbos. The other opinion is by learning Torah. The Yerushalmi says that really there is no argument; it just depends upon whom we are dealing with, whether the person is a talmid or a baal habayis.
The Rishonim argue about who has the oneg of sleeping on Shabbos. The Re’aim and the Meiri in Shabbos, kuf yud ches, amud bais say that for a talmid who learns the whole week, his oneg on Shabbos is to sleep. A baal habayis who does not learn the whole week should have oneg Shabbos by learning on Shabbos.
The second shitta states just the opposite. A talmid who enjoys learning should learn on Shabbos as an oneg, whereas a baal habayis who may not enjoy learning that much should sleep on Shabbos.
The Shelah Hakadosh says that the letters of Shabbos stand for “Sheina Beshabos Taanug,” therefore there is an inyan to sleep both at night and during the day.
We could explain the importance of rest with the following thought process. Every living organism has a time for sleeping and rest. Water has life to it, albeit a very limited life, therefore it requires very little rest. The human being, which is considered the being with the most life, needs the most sleep in order to recharge the life in it.
On Shabbos, when we are given a double neshama with the neshama yeseira, we need more sleep. During the week sleep during the day is frowned upon in Halacha; however, on Shabbos when we have a neshama yeseira even Halacha will encourage a person to sleep during the day.
May we all be zocheh to have the real Oneg Shabbos of sleeping in order to recharge and be able to learn that much more every Shabbos.